{Abstract} AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ESENSIAL JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) DAN LENGKUAS MERAH (Alpinia purpurata K. Schum) TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN DAN PERUSAK PANGAN

By: Rialita T1, Rahayu WP2,3, Nuraida L2,3, Nurtama B2

1 Study program of Food Science, Bogor Agricultural University
2Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University
3Southeast Asia Food and Agriculture Science and Technology Center, Bogor Agricultural University

The aims of this study was to determine the characteristics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of local Indonesian red ginger and red galangal against four pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria, which were B.cereus ATCC 10876, E. coli ATCC 25922, S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics was carried outin accordance with ISO7355:1985. The chemical composition was analyzed using a GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method and broth micro dilution method was used for determine MIC and MBC values. Red ginger essential oil characteristic was brownish yellow, specific gravity 0.883, refractive index 1.480, optical rotation -8.45o, clear soluble (1:1) in 90 % alcohol, 2.06 acid number and 42.45 ester number. Red galangal essential oil had a characteristic bright yellow color, specific gravity 0.895, refractive index 1.496, optical rotation -9.15o, clear soluble (1:1) in 90 % alcohol, 1.95 acid number and 140.15 ester number. The major component of red ginger essential oils were trimethyl-heptadien-ol, ar-curcumene, camphene, carbaldehyde, -sesquiphellandrene, and nerol; while the major component of red galangal essential oil were 1.8-cineole, chavicol, 9-desoxo-9-xi-hydroxy-3-pentaacetate-3,5,7,8,9,12-Ingol,- caryophyllene and -selinene. The essential oil of red ginger and red galangal had moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria with the average inhibition zone 7.17-10.33 and 7.25-11.17 mm. Red ginger essential oils could inhibit the growth of tested
bacteria with MIC values of 2.65-3.97 mg/mL and MBC value of 3.10-5.29 mg/mL, while the red galangal essential oil could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria with MIC values of 1.79-4.03 mg mL and MBC values of 1.79-4.92 mg/mL. Based on the MIC and MBC values, all tested bacteria sensitivity to essential oils of red ginger and galangal red decline
in a row B.cereus > E. coli > S. Typhimurium> P. aeruginosa. Sensitivity of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria to both essential oils demonstrate the potential of the oils to be used as a natural preservative in the food industry.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, essential oil, red ginger, red galangal

Telah diterbitkan di: Jurnal Agritech. 2015. 35 (1): 43-45

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