{Abstract} PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Fusarium verticillioides BIO 957 DAN PRODUKSI FUMONISIN B1 (The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Growth of Fusarium verticillioides Bio 957 and Fumonisin B1 Productions)

By: Rahayu D1, Rahayu WP2,3, Lioe HN2, Herawati D2,3, Broto W4, Ambarwati S5

1Program Studi Ilmu Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-IPB
2Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-IPB
3Seafast Center, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian-IPB
4Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pasca Panen Pertanian
5SEAMEO BIOTROP

Fusarium verticillioides was the predominant species in producing fumonisin on agricultural products. Fumonisisn B1 (FB1) is the most abundant fumonisin in nature and the most toxic than other fumonisin. The main factors affecting the growth of and production of fumonisin are temperature and humidity. This research aimed to assess the effect of changes in temperature and humidity on the growth of and FB1 production on maize and soybeans medium. Maize and soybeans that have inoculated with suspension Bio 957 were incubated at 20, 30 and 40 °C with 70, 80 and 90% of humidity for 14 days. Observations of growth made by weighing the cells mass and analysis of FB1 production performed by HPLC. The results showed that the highest growth of Bio 957 in maize and soybeans was occurred at temperature 30 °C and 90% of humidity, the cell mass weights were 904,5 and 885,5 mg per 20 g of maize and soybeans respectively. The highest concentration of FB1 in maize and soybeans were 374 and 67 pbb respectively, observed at temperature 30 °C for maize and 20 °C for soybeans, both at same humidity (90%). The results showed that Bio 957 was able to grow well and produced the highest concentrations of FB1 in maize and soybeans at a temperature of 20 and 30 °C with 90% of humidity. At a temperature of 40 °C with 70, 80 and 90% of humidity, the growth of was not observed, therefore FB1 formation was avoided.

Keywords: Fumonisin B1, Bio 957, humidity, temperature

Telah diterbitkan di: Jurnal Agritech. 2015. 35 (2): 156-163

{Abstract} PENERAPAN GOOD LOGISTIC PRACTICES SEBAGAI PENUNJANG EKSPOR BUAH TROPIS (GOOD LOGISTIC PRACTICES AS A MAIN SUPPORTED FOR TROPICAL FRUIT EXPORT)

By: Rahayu WP1 and Adhi W2

1Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan IPB
2Alumni Departemen Teknologi Industri IPB

One strategy that can be taken to develop the economic potential of fruits is the logistical support that takes into account the effectiveness and efficiency of commercial and pay attention to quality and food safety requirements. Practically, logistics support can be done with the application of good logistics practices (GLP). Packaging, storage, and handling during transportation become key activities with temperature and time during handling and processing as two critical factors in fruits logistics management that will determine the final quality of fruits commodity. Each commodity of tropical fruits require special treatment which is should be tailored to its nature and morphology. Understanding and the ability of farmers and agro-industry entrepreneurs in dealing with fruits especially in providing cold chain in the logistics process becomes a major capital to compete with imported fruits entrepreneurs.

Keywords: good logistics practices, tropical fruits.

Telah diterbitkan di: Jurnal manajemen Transportasi dan Logistik 21 (1) ; 93-105

{Abstract} AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK ESENSIAL JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) DAN LENGKUAS MERAH (Alpinia purpurata K. Schum) TERHADAP BAKTERI PATOGEN DAN PERUSAK PANGAN

By: Rialita T1, Rahayu WP2,3, Nuraida L2,3, Nurtama B2

1 Study program of Food Science, Bogor Agricultural University
2Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University
3Southeast Asia Food and Agriculture Science and Technology Center, Bogor Agricultural University

The aims of this study was to determine the characteristics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of local Indonesian red ginger and red galangal against four pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria, which were B.cereus ATCC 10876, E. coli ATCC 25922, S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics was carried outin accordance with ISO7355:1985. The chemical composition was analyzed using a GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method and broth micro dilution method was used for determine MIC and MBC values. Red ginger essential oil characteristic was brownish yellow, specific gravity 0.883, refractive index 1.480, optical rotation -8.45o, clear soluble (1:1) in 90 % alcohol, 2.06 acid number and 42.45 ester number. Red galangal essential oil had a characteristic bright yellow color, specific gravity 0.895, refractive index 1.496, optical rotation -9.15o, clear soluble (1:1) in 90 % alcohol, 1.95 acid number and 140.15 ester number. The major component of red ginger essential oils were trimethyl-heptadien-ol, ar-curcumene, camphene, carbaldehyde, -sesquiphellandrene, and nerol; while the major component of red galangal essential oil were 1.8-cineole, chavicol, 9-desoxo-9-xi-hydroxy-3-pentaacetate-3,5,7,8,9,12-Ingol,- caryophyllene and -selinene. The essential oil of red ginger and red galangal had moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria with the average inhibition zone 7.17-10.33 and 7.25-11.17 mm. Red ginger essential oils could inhibit the growth of tested
bacteria with MIC values of 2.65-3.97 mg/mL and MBC value of 3.10-5.29 mg/mL, while the red galangal essential oil could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria with MIC values of 1.79-4.03 mg mL and MBC values of 1.79-4.92 mg/mL. Based on the MIC and MBC values, all tested bacteria sensitivity to essential oils of red ginger and galangal red decline
in a row B.cereus > E. coli > S. Typhimurium> P. aeruginosa. Sensitivity of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria to both essential oils demonstrate the potential of the oils to be used as a natural preservative in the food industry.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, essential oil, red ginger, red galangal

Telah diterbitkan di: Jurnal Agritech. 2015. 35 (1): 43-45

{Abstract} AKTIVITAS ANTIAFLATOKSIN B1 EKSTRAK DAUN RUMPUT KEBAR (Biophytum petersianum) TERHADAP Aspergillus flavus (Antiaflatoxin B1 Activity of Kebar Grass (Biophytum petersianum) Leaf Extract on Aspergillus flavus)

By: Lisangan MM1,2, Syarief R3, Rahayu WP3,4, Dharmaputra OS5,6

1Study program of Food Science, Bogor Agricultural University
2Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, The State University of Papua
3Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University,
4Southeast Asia Food and Agriculture Science and Technology Center, Bogor Agricultural University
5Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University
6Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP), Jl. Raya Tajur, Bogor, West Java-Indonesia

Aflatoxin B1 was a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus having negative effect on human health because of its carcinogenic. Many efforts have been done to investigate the antifungal and antiaflatoxin agent derived plant. The objective of this research was to study the activity of antifungal from kebar grass leaf extract on mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus BCC F0219 and A. flavus BIO 2236 isolates in food model medium i.e. carbohydrate-enriched medium, fat-enriched medium and protein-enriched medium. Kebar grass leaf extracts was successively obtained by using n-hexane – ethyl acetate – methanol (HEM). Concentrations of the extract tested on A. flavus BCC F0219 and A. flavus BIO 2236 were 1; 1.5, and 2 MIC. The MIC for A. flavus BCC F0219 in carbohydrate-enriched medium, fat-enriched medium, and protein-enriched medium were 12, 14, and 14 mg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the MIC for A. flavus BIO 2236 in carbohydrate-enriched medium, fat-enriched medium and protein-enriched medium were 12, 16 and 16 mg/mL, respectively. The results showed that the percentage of growth inhibition of A. flavus BCC F0219 and BIO 2236 in carbohydrate, fat and protein-enriched medium at 3 different levels of MIC concentrations ranged between 90.8 – 100% and 93.8 – 100%. The inhibitory effect of Aflatoxin B1 production of A. flavus F0219 BCC and BIO 2236 in carbohydrate, fat and protein-enriched medium at 3 different levels of MIC concentration ranged between 70.86 – 100 % and 83.42 – 98.84 %.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, anti aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Biophytum petersianum, food model medium, kebar grass

Telah diterbitkan di Jurnal Agritech. 2015. 35 (1): 116-128

{Abstract} The Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity for Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Soybeans

By:Pratiwi C1, Rahayu WP2,3, Lioe HN 2, Herawati D 2,3, Broto W4 and Ambarwati S5

1Study program of Food Science, Bogor Agricultural University,
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,Bogor Agricultural University, Campus IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220 Bogor 16002, Indonesia,
3SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University,
4Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia
5SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor-Indonesia

Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) producing aflatoxin frequently contaminates crops such as
soybeans. The growth of this mold on soybeans and other foodstuffs is affected by temperature and relative humidity (RH). The aim of this study was to measure the growth of A. flavus BIO 2237 and aflatoxin production at different temperatures and RH. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 was isolated from Indonesia origin foodstuffs. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 was inoculated in Czapek Dox Agar (CDA) and soybeans for 10 days at a temperature of 20, 30, and 40oC with RH of 70, 80, and 90%. Aflatoxin analysis was conducted using RP-HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector and post column photochemical reactor. The limit of detection (LoD) for aflatoxin of B 1, B2, G1, and G2 was 0.45, 0.26, 0.05, and 0.13 ng/mL (ppb), while their limit of quantification (LoQ) was 1.50, 0.88, 0.18 and 0.43 ng/mL (ppb) respectively. The maximum growth for A. flavus BIO 2237 in CDA and soybeans was reached at a temperature of 30oC with RH of 90%, and this was based on the highest diameter of colony and amount of cell mass formed in that condition. The maximum level of aflatoxin in contaminated soybeans was found at 999 ng/g (ppb), and this was produced at the same condition as its fungi’s growth. Aspergillus flavus BIO 2237 can not grow as well as produce aflatoxin in soybeans at high temperature (40ºC) with low RH (70%). There was a significant difference (sig<0.05) in aflatoxin content (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) between temperature and RH, meanwhile the difference on the growth of A. flavus BIO 2237 in CDA and soybeans caused by RH.

Keywords : Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Relative humidity, Soybeans, Temperature

Published in International Food Research Journal 2015. 22(1): 82-87

{Abstract} Antifungal Activity of Kebar Grass Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Food Model Media

By: Lisangan MM1*, Syarief R2 , Rahayu WP3, Dharmaputra OS4

1,2,3 Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Lingkar Kampus IPB, PO Box. 220, Bogor-16680, West Java-Indonesia
1 Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, The State University of Papua, Jl. Gunung Salju Amban, Manokwari-98356, West Papua-Indonesia
3 Southeast Asia Food and Agriculture Science and Technology Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl.Lingkar Kampus IPB, Bogor, West Java-Indonesia
4 Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Lingkar Kampus IPB, Bogor,West Java-Indonesia. Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP), Jl. Raya Tajur, Bogor, West Java-Indonesia

Some fungal species are toxigenic, for example Aspergillus flavus which can produce aflatoxin. Various methods have been conducted to reduce aflatoxin contamination in foods, among others using antimicrobial compounds derived from natural plant extract. Kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum Klotszch) is one of herbs that has potency as anti microbe. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of model media i.e. carbohydrate-enriched media, fat-enriched media, and protein- enriched media containing kebar grass extract on the growth of aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Kebar grass extract at concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mg mL-1 was extracted using various solvents, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane-ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol, and aquadest extracts was tested on the growth of A. flavus. The result showed that kebar grass extract of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol at concentration of 20 mg ml-1 in carbohydrate-enriched medium, fat-enriched medium, and protein- enriched medium caused higher growth inhibition of A. flavus than other extracts, i.e. 96.2, 100, and 96.1%, respectively. The other extracts had growth inhibition less than 90%. The results obtained in the present study suggest that kebar grass extract can be used to inhibit the growth of A. flavus toxigenic.

Keywords: Antifungal activity; aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus; Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch; food model media

Published in: International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2014. 17 (2): 116-128

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