By: Rahayu W P1), Setyawardani T2), Miskiyah3) (1)Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, 2)Faculty of Animal Science, Jenderal Soedirman University, 3) Post harvest Research and Development Center, Ministry of Agriculture)
Goat milk is very potential to be future processed because it has low content of lactose, high MCFA, and high nucleotides. Goat milk is a natural source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that have beneficial effect to the health. The research successfully isolated Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and L. plantarum 1 and then apply those bacteria on cheese as a form of food diversification. This research were done in three stages, i.e. (1) maintenance and preparation of lactic acid bacteria culture, (2) probiotic cheese making and testing its stability, (3) proximate and sensory test of probiotic cheese. Probiotic cheese using Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and L. plantarum 1 has the stability of LAB for 4 weeks of storage with the number of LAB was 109 log CFU/g. The flavour of resulting cheese was similar to commercial goat cheese, but the texture and taste were different (P<0.05) to commercial goat cheese. The texture of probiotic soft cheese has a hardness range from 0.115 to 0.452 N. The hardness texture was significantly different at level 5% (P<0.05) for soft cheese compare to the use of different probiotic LAB. The chemical composition of probiotic cheese has moisture content from 56.38 to 60.58%; protein content from 13.57 to 17.40%, fat 17.66 to 20.42% fat and ash content from 2.69 to 3.19%.
Keywords : goat milk, probiotics, cheese
Dimuat di Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian, Volume 7 No. 2, 2010, ISSN 0216-1192
By: Rahayu WP, Kusnandar F, and Prayitno WE (Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Institut Pertanian Bogor)
The use of goat milk is limited in Indonesia due to lack of good milking practices resulted in disliked goaty smell. One of the method to eliminate this off flavor is by processing the goat milk into soft cheese. The aim of this research was to study the stability of viable starter lactic acid bacteria cultures ( FNCC-0051 and FNCC-0090) during storage of goat milk soft cheese. Three batches of goat milk soft cheeses were produced with different starter cultures FNCC-0051 (5.0 x 106 cfu mL-1 ); FNCC-0090 (5.0 x 106 cfu mL-1 ); and the mixture of FNCC-0051 (2.5 x 106 cfu mL-1 ) and FNCC-0090 (2.5 x 106 cfu mL-1 ). The goat milk cheeses had white color and soft. The viable lactic acid bacteria in the goat milk soft cheese reached 109 cfu g-1 , which was stable for 8 weeks at 5 °C. Panelists liked goat milk soft cheeses, especially in term of its aroma. The specific aroma produced could mask the disliked goaty smell.
Key words: goat milk, soft cheese, starter lactic acid bacteria.
Journal Microbiology Indonesia. ISSN 1978-3477, eISSN 2087-8575. Vol 5, No 4, December 2011, p 149-153. Available online at: http://www.permi.or.id/journal/index.php/mionline
By: Waty TD1, Yarni L1, Murhandini S1, and Rahayu WP2
1Research Center for Drug and Food, National Agency for Drug and Food Control,
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University
Zingiber officinale var rubrum is used in folk medicine as carminative, stimulant of the gastro intestinal tract and counter irritant. The aim of study was to obtain the fingerprint through chromatogram profiles of Zingiber officinale var rubrum that can be used for standardizing of traditional medicines. This research was carried out by material preparation and extraction from its crude extract in various solvents i.e. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, then followed by identification using TLC with scanner and documentary system in reliable resolutions at UV λ 254 and λ 366 nm. Analysis by HPLC was also performed to find chromatogram profile with specific retention time. From the results of TLC, elution in n–hexane: diethyl ether (45:55 v/v), all extracts showed a similar pattern with specific retention factors at about 0.12 and 0.28 (254 nm) and 0.19 (366 nm). Otherwise, elution in toluene: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate (60:30:10 v/v/v), all extracts had different pattern with specific retention factor at about 0.02 and 0.31 (254 nm). Analysis by HPLC using column C18 and mobile phases: (A) acetonitrile: water: ammonium acetate 2 % (59:39:2 v/v/v) and (B) acetonitrile: ammonium acetate 2 % (98:2 v/v) respectively resulted the best profile chromatogram for the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts. In conclusion, the chromatogram profiles obtained can be used as fingerprint for standardization of Zingiber officinale var rubrum extract.
Keywords: Zingiber officinale var rubrum rhizome, TLC scanner, fingerprint, chromatogram
Presented at International Conference on Natural Products. University Putra Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, 13-16 November 2011
By: Iltizam Nasrullah, Sri Murhandini, Winiati P.Rahayu (Research Center for Drug and Food, National Agency of Drug and Food Control of the Republic of Indonesia, Jl. Percetakan Negara No 23, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia)
Sonchus arvensis L. leaves is empirically used as a traditional medicine for asthma, cough, anti-inflammation and diuretic. To ensure quality through identification and standardization of its extract, fingerprint/phytochemical study is needed. In this research, the phytochemical study was carried out by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) scanner and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). From the results, n-hexane extract showed a better separation with toluen:ethyl acetate (93:7 v/v) and had specific retention factor 0.13; 0.31; 0.36; 0.46; 0.51 (254 nm) and 0.13; 0.32; 0.36; 0.46; 0.51; 0.59 (366 nm). Chloroform extract showed specific retention factor 0.13; 0.36; 0.46; 0.52 (254 nm) and 0.13; 0.32; 0.36; 0.46; 0.52; 0.61 (366 nm). Otherwise, clear separation of ethyl acetate extract was shown in chloroform:toluen: ethanol (4:4:1 v/v/v) with specific retention factor 0.23; 0.34; 0.36; 0.39; 0.80 (254 nm) and 0.20; 0.26; 0.34; 0.48; 0.76 (366 nm). From HPLC chromatogram at 254 nm, using acetonitrile-phosporic acid mixture showed specific retention time at 2.46; 4.09; 4.83; 7.69; 10.02; 11.06; 11.73 minute for hexane extract and 3.66; 5.84; 6.98 minute for ethyl acetate extract. In conclusion, the specific retention time from both extracts can be used as fingerprint for standardization of traditional medicine extract of Sonchus arvensis L. leaves.
Key words: Sonchus arvensis L. leaves, TLC scanner, HPLC, fingerprint, retention factor and retention time
Presented at 59th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research. Antalya, Turkey, 4-9 September 2011.