{Abstract} POLA PERTUMBUHAN Aspergillus ochraceus BIO 220 DAN PRODUKSI OKRATOKSIN A PADA JAGUNG DAN KEDELAI INVITRO (Growth Pattern of Aspergillus ochraceus and Ochratoxin A Production on Maize and Soybeans Invitro)

By:Simatupang S 1),  Rahayu WP 2),3), Lioe HN 2), Herawati D 2),3), Broto W 4), Ambarwati S 5). 1)Program Studi Ilmu Pangan-Institut Pertanian Bogor, 2)Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian- Institut Pertanian Bogor,
3)SEAFAST Center- Institut Pertanian Bogor, 4)Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian Bogor, 5)SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor

Toxigenic fungi, Aspergillus ochraceus producing ochratoxin A can cause serious health problem if the fungi contaminated food product such as maize and soybean. A. ochraceus growth is affected by climate change including the change of temperature and relative humidity. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of temperature and relative humidity on A. ochraceus BIO 220 growth and its ochratoxin A production. Aspergillus ochraceus BIO 220 was inoculated in Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA) media, maize and soybean, then incubated at 3 different temperatures (20, 30, 40 oC) dan 3 different relative humidity (70, 80 dan 90%) for 20 days. Mycelium and spores were observed every two days and the level of ochratoxin A was analyzed using RP-HPLC equipped by fluorescence detector after 40 days. Optimum growth for A. ochraceus BIO 220 in laboratory media, maize and soybean was at temperature 30 °C and relative humidity 90%, while the highest ochratoxin A level was reached in maize (93 ppb) and soybean (45 ppb) at temperature of 20 °C and 80 % relative humidity. Aspergillus ochracheus BIO 220 could not grow in maize and soybean at extreme condition (temperature 40 °C and relative humidity 70, 80 dan 90 %).
Keywords : Aspergillus ochraceus, ochratoxin, relative humidity, temperature

Dimuat di: Jurnal Pascapanen 11 (1): 48-56. 2014

{Abstract} PENGARUH PROGRAM KEAMANAN PANGAN DI SEKOLAH TERHADAP PENGETAHUAN PENJAJA PANGAN JAJANAN DAN SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR (Effect of Food Safety Program in Elementary Schools on the Knowledge Improvement of Food Vendors and Students)

By: Anggitasari A 1), Rahayu WP 1), Ratnasari Y. 2). 1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, 2) Badan Pengawas Obat daan Makanan.

The importance of food safety education in order to enrich food safety knowledge of food vendor in elementary school (ES) should not be neglected. The aim of this study were to determine the level of food safety knowledge of food vendor, the impact of food safety program to food understanding, and the influence of food safety education toward ES students’ knowledge. The data gained from 20 provinces in Indonesia were analyzed using SPSS through pearson analysis method and paired sample t test. The result revealed that 71.96% of food vendors possessed a poor knowledge, and only 28.04% had a good knowledge about food safety. The result of analysis between variable showed that there was no significant effect of food safety programs, which were (1) the implementation of food safety regulations in school and (2) the application of food safety extension from school to food vendors. Food safety extension to ES students increased student knowledge of food safety up to 19.41%.

Keywords: elementary school student, food safety, food vendor

Dimuat di: J. Mutu Pangan 1(2): 65-73. 2014


{Abstract} PENGETAHUAN PELABELAN PRODUSEN INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA PANGAN DI KOTA BOGOR (The Food Labeling Knowledge of Small-Medium Enterprises in Bogor)

By: Septian J, Rahayu WP. Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Label was one of important part of food packaging. The objective of this research was determining the level of Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) knowledge about food labeling in Bogor. The research was done by surveying 88 managers of SMEs as respondents and auditing their food product labels. The results showed that more than 55 % SMEs food labels accordanced to the regulation but only 16 % of SMEs managers well understood about food labeling. Fifty percent of the most reliable source of information about food labeling regulation that respondents received was derived from Indonesian Health District Office. The results of spearman correlation test showed that the correlation between SMEs managers characteristics (age, education, occupation, and socio-economic status) were not significant (p>0.05) with their perception about food labeling.

Keywords: food labeling, knowledge, SMEs

Dimuat di: J. Mutu Pangan 1(2): 145-150. 2014

{Abstract} PROSES PENGERINGAN SOHUN DENGAN PEMANASAN BERTAHAP DALAM OVEN (Vermicelli Drying Process with Oven Dryer Through Gradual Heating)

By:Yosua G, Rahayu WP. Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor


Vermicelli or cellophane noodles is a type of noodle that is made from starch of sagoo or mung bean. Vermicelli has an appearance like a string, spongy and slick texture, also transparent. On vermicelli making process in small food industry, the drying technique is still using the natural technique which is with sun light. The usage of solar will cause inconsistency in quality of vermicelli and requires many labors and a big lot. These reasons encourage to conduct a research of vermicelli drying process with oven dryer through gradual drying. There were three heating treatments, which were A) 65 oC – 10 minutes, 100 oC – 10 minutes, and 140 oC – 5 minutes, B) 80 oC – 10 minutes, 100 oC – 10 minutes, and 130 oC – 5 minutes, C) 80 oC – 15 minutes and 140 oC – 10 minutes and the recommended drying treatment is drying technique with temperature 80 oC – 10 minutes, 100 oC – 10 minutes, and 130 oC – 5 minutes because it produces vermicelli with the most similliar quality with industrial vermicelli. The vermicelli had water content 13.09 %, cooking loss 11.67 %, water absorption 74.56 %, and elongation 198 %. Oven drying can reduce the operational cost to 33 % compared to solar drying. Thus, oven drying can replace solar drying and it can reduce time of drying, cost also produces vermicelli in consistent quality.

Keywords: gradual drying, oven dryer, vermicelli

Dimuat di: Jurnal MUTU Pangan 1(2): 132-136. tahun 2014

{Abstract} KAJIAN STANDAR CEMARAN MIKROBA DALAM PANGAN DI INDONESIA (Review on Food Microbiological Standard in Indonesia)

By: Martoyo PY1)2),  Dewanti- Hariyadi R1) Rahayu WP1). 1) Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, 2) Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan

Microbiological standard for processed food in Indonesia is regulated by the Head of NADFC in Decree No. POM. HK. 2009 pertaining Microbial and Chemical Contamination Limit in Food and by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of food commodities. In the implementation, there were several obstacles and some criteria could not be met because they were too stringent or the testing methods were not available. The purpose of this study was to compare the fulfillment of microbiological standards of Indonesia and some other countries in the world against the rules of Codex microbiology criteria, to review microbiological criteria of priority foods and to provide recommendations for their microbiological criteria. The study was conducted by comparing and analyzing the microbiological criteria from Indonesia and 10 other countries, namely Australia and New Zealand, Europe, Philippines, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Singapore and South Africa and recommendation by Codex Principles for The Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997). As the case studies, several foods were selected based on several obstacles occurred and their criteria and studied as above. The results showed that Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Canada and the Philippines comply with the Codex Principles, while Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and South Africa do not comply. The study also showed that Indonesia’s standard for bottled/packaged drinking water, instant coffee and canned food need revision. For the purpose of verification of the production process and lot acceptance, it is recommended to set one maximum limit of TPC for bottled/packaged drinking water. Determination of microbiological criteria in instant coffee is irrelevant, except for the OTA. Requirements for canned food should be done with a fulfillment for adequate heat treatment and incubation test to anticipate microbial spoilage.

Keywords: Codex, Microbiological Criteria, Standard

Dimuat di Jurnal Standardisasi 16 (2): 113-124. tahun 2014

{Abstract} PENGEMBANGAN STRATEGI KEAMANAN PRODUK PERIKANAN UNTUK EKSPOR KE AMERIKA SERIKAT (Food Safety Strategy Development of Fishery Products Export to the United States)

By:  Rahmawaty L1)2),  Rahayu WP1) D. Kusumannggrum1). 1) Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB 2) PT. Narrada Sigma Indonesia

Nowadays productivity and export of Indonesian fish product increase and Indonesia became number one producer of tuna product in the world. The biggest challenge for Indonesian fishery products in the era of free trade is food safety. This study aims to analyze the case of rejection of Indonesian fishery products by the U.S. and design a recommendation on food safety strategy development of fishery products export to United State. The result of data collection indicate that Indonesian products rejection by FDA in 2010-2012 has fluctuated and dominated by fishery products, with the main cause of rejection are filthy and Salmonella. The case study conducted at tuna processing company which has been HACCP certified by Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries to strengthen the data. Case study indicate a failure in the application of HACCP system because of in harmony standard, regulation and audit system Indonesia to FDA. Based on gap analysis standard and regulation of Indonesia to FDA, recommendation are proposed on food strategy related to standardization, accreditation, infrastructure and international cooperation.
Keywords: fishery product safety, HACCP, policy strategy, standardization, accreditation.

Dimuat di Jurnal Standardisasi 16 (2): 95-102. tahun 2014

{Abstract} BIOCONTROL OF TOXIGENIC MOLDS by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9376

By Rahayu WP1),2)*, Herawati D1),2),  Broto W3),  Ambarwati S4),Lioe HN1), Simatupang S5),  Pratiwi C5),  Rahayu D5).                                                                        1)2) Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University/IPB, 2)SEAFAST Center-IPB, 3)Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture,4)SEAMEO BIOTROP, 5)Study Program of Food Science-IPB

Toxigenic molds (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Fusarium verticillioides) are able to produce mycotoxin and contaminate crops (i.e. maize and soybean), which in the next may have serious impact to health risk. This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of antagonist yeast, S. cerevisiae, as a biological competitor for the growth of toxigenic molds. The biocontrol of toxigenic molds on Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA), soybean and maize was conducted by growing toxigenic molds together with S. cerevisiae ATCC 9376 for 10 (A. flavus BIO 2237), 15 (A. ochraceus BIO 220), and 8 (F. verticillioides BIO 957) days. This research showed that S. cerevisiae ATCC 9376 could inhibit A. flavus BIO 2237, A. ochraceus BIO 220, and F. verticillioides BIO 957with the inhibition percentage: 46, 43, and 44 % on PDA medium; 47, 59, and 45 % on maize medium; and 44, 49, and 39 % on soybean medium respectively. The result showed that A. ochraceus BIO 220 become the most inhibit toxigenic molds among others and maize was the most effective media of inhibition. Furthermore, this preliminary information could be used for biological control of toxigenic molds growth and mycotoxin control in foods.

Keywords: maize, S. cerevisiae, soybean, toxigenic molds

The paper has been presented in International Conference on Food for A Quality Life. Jakarta, 15 – 16 October 2014


By: 1Setyawardani, T., 2*Rahayu, W. P., 3Maheswari, R. R., and 2Palupi, N. S.
1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Campus IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220, Bogor 16002, Indonesia. 3Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

To be categorized as probiotic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) must have at least antimicrobial activity and adhesion ability on intestinal mucosal surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and adhesion ability of eight LAB strains isolated from goat milk. The isolates passed initial selection on low pH (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0) and bile salt tolerance (0.3% Oxgall). Three strains of L. rhamnosus (TW2, TW3, TW32); five strains of L. plantarum (TW4, TW10, TW14, TW26, and TW28) were examined for their antimicrobial activity against both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, E. coli ATCC 8739, B. cereus ATCC 13061, S. aureus ATCC 25923 and     P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027). Five isolates (TW2, TW4, TW14, TW28, and TW32) were evaluated for their ability to adhere to intestinal mucosal surfaces. A modified well diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity. A modification of an animal model was also used to analyze the LAB adhesion ability. The adhesion of the bacteria on jejunum and ileum was examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The result showed that the isolates had diameters of inhibition ranging from 12.6 to 19.9 mm for      S. Typhimurium, 11.3 to 21.4 mm for E. coli, 7.5 to 19.9 mm for B. cereus, and                9.9 to 24.7 mm for P. aeruginosa. L. plantarum TW10 and TW26 had no inhibition activity for S. aureus. The adhesion ability of the bacteria was 0.54-2.19 log CFU/cm2 on the intestinal mucosal surfaces. The highest adhesive level in jejunum and ileum was showed by L. rhamnosus TW2.

Keywords: adhesion ability, antimicrobial, lactic acid bacteria, goat milk

Published at Int. Food Res. Journal 1(3): 959-964. 2014. ISSN 19854668/e:22317546

{Abstract} PEMENUHAN REGULASI PELABELAN PRODUK INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA PANGAN (IRTP) DI BOGOR (Fulfillment of Food Labeling Regulations for Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Products in Bogor)

By: Wijaya, WA and Rahayu WP

Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

A food label is an important tools for food trade activities, thus it required to be regulated and controlled so the information about the food that delivered to the public was true and not mislead. This research was a descriptive research with aimed to evaluate the degree of fulfillment of food product labels of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bogor compared with existing regulations (Indonesian Act Number 18 of 2012). Samples were chose from three majority of SMEs products in Bogor, there were flour products and its processing; products from the process of grains and tubers; and softdrink and powdered beverages products. Four group of element were tested: 1) technical labeling, 2) format content, 3) minimum information, and 4) prohibited information. The results showed the level of fulfillment for those three types of products were: 1) technical labeling: 44, 45, and 73%, 2) format content: 75, 80, and 60%, 3) minimum information: 69, 64, and 66%; and 4) prohibited information: 99, 100, 96%, respectively. The average level of fulfillment for those three types of products were 72, 72, and 74%, respectively. This low result of level of fulfillment showed that it still need further development of SMEs, especially about food labelling criteria according to the existing regulations.

Keywords: Label, level of fulfillment, regulations, SMEs

Dimuat di Jurnal MUTU PANGAN 1(1): 67-73. ISSN 2355-5017. 2014.

{abstract} DAMPAK KONDISI EKSTRIM SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Aspergillus flavus DAN PEMBENTUKAN AFLATOKSIN PADA KEDELAI (Impact of Extreme Condition (Temperature and Relative Humidity)for Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Soybean)

By: Rahayu WP1),2), Broto W3), Ambarwati S4), Dian Herawati1),2), Lioe HN1), Pratiwi C5). 1)Department of Food Science and Technology-IPB, 2)SEAFAST Center-IPB, 3)Agency for Research and Development of Agricultural Postharvest, Ministry of Agriculture. 4)SEAMEO BIOTROP, 5) Food Science Post Graduate Student.

 http://www.clt.astate.edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

http://www.clt.astate.edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

Aspergillus flavus producing aflatoxin is found contaminating crops such as soybean. The growth of this mold on soybean and other food is affected by temperature and relative humidity (RH). The aim of this study was to measure the growth and aflatoxin production of A.flavus at different temperature and relative humidity. A. flavus Bio 2237 was inoculated on  medium namely Czapek Dox Agar (CDA), and soybean,  and incubated for 10 days at 20, 30, 40oC and RH 70, 80, 90%, respectively. Aflatoxin analysis was conducted using RP-HPLC equipped by fluorescent detector and post column photochemical reactor. These instruments had LoD 0.45, 0.26, 0.05, and 0.13 ppb, while the LoQ were 1.50, 0.88, 0.18, and 0.43 ppb,  for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 respectively. Optimum growth for  A. flavus Bio 2237 on CDA medium and soybean were reached at 30oC with RH 90%. Maximum aflatoxin (999 ppb) production on soybean was reached at those conditions as well. A. flavus could not grow as well as produce aflatoxin at extreme condition (40ºC and RH70%) on soybean.


Keywords: aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, extreme condition, soybean.

 Dipresentasikan pada Seminar Hasil Hasil Penelitian IPB, 23-24 Desember 2013.