By: Winiati P. Rahayu (Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University).
Mycotoxin is widely known as one cause of the foodborne disease, produced by toxigenic fungi. Its prevalence becomes higher with the availability of supporting conditions such as proper climatic changes, plentiful substrates, and minimum controls. Any country should be aware about this high risk potency in order to maintain food safety and food security by knowing the mycotoxin, the affected commodities, the fungal sources, and the toxicity effect to human or animal. Indonesia has made some regulations regarding the contamination of mycotoxin to food or feedstuff, including Aflatoxin, Fumonisin, Deoxynivalenol (DON), Ochratoxin, and Patulin (PAT). Besides controlling through regulations, many studies controlling mycotoxin have also been done throughout the world. The using of microorganism or metabolite compounds produced by microorganism as biological agent has many advantages such as mild reaction conditions, target specificity, efficiency and environmental friendly. Some microbial strains has been developed as commercial biological agent product including Aspergillus flavus AF36, A. flavus strain NRRL21882, etc. The microbial characteristic used for biological agent should be evaluated including the inability to produce toxic substance, the tendency to multiply, colonize, survive, the safety, and applicability to the environment. Studies related to mycotoxin biocontrol by using microorganism can be focused on (1) the effect to the mycotoxin, (2) the growth of microorganism, or (3) the application to food both raw material and processed products. Consideration to combine more than one species of microorganism instead of a single species also has been taken to gather the possibility of achieving more effective. For example, Yeast (S. cerevisiae) has been used together with bacteria (LAB) to take control on mycotoxin produced by some fungi. Further studies are still needed to develop the possibility of other biological control agents and the effect of their application, which in the next have the potency to be developed as manufacturing products.
Keywords: alternatives, advantages, biological agents, mycotoxin biocontrol
Presented at International Conference on Mycological Aspects of Food and Feed Safety, Yogyakarta, 27-28 June 2013