{Abstract} TINGKAT KEPATUHAN PEDAGANG MINUMAN ES TERHADAP CARA PRODUKSI PANGAN YANG BAIK DI KOTA BOGOR (Iced Drink Sellers’ Compliance Level on Good Manufacturing Practices in Bogor)

By: Rahayu WP 1,2, Wafiyah Q1, Nurjanah S1,2, Nurwitri CC1,3

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Engineering,
Bogor Agricultural University
2SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University
3 Diploma Program, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Raya Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Iced drinks such as coconut ice, ice fruit soup, mixed blend ice, fruit juice, iced tea, and ice with grass jelly are commonly found in Bogor and should be safe for human consumption. The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics and conditions of seller iced beverages, and identify the level of compliance on the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) during the processing of ice drinks. The survey and observation were conducted to 90 iced drink sellers. There was three business scale observed based on economic class: small-scale business consists of street vendors; medium-scale business consists of small restaurants and food stalls and large scale business consists of restaurants and hotels. Most of the seller used bottled water (56.23%) as raw material. Some sellers made ice cubes using tap water from Indonesian regional water company (71.43%) and 6.49% from them did not boil the water before. The higher level of education and the bigger business scale gave the higher level of vendor’s compliance towards the application of GMPs. The level of compliance to GMP from each business scale was 4.69% for small-scale business, 83.33% for medium-scale business, and 100% for large-scale business.

Keywords: Good Manufacturing Practices, iced drinks, level of compliance

Published at Industria: Jurnal Teknologi dan Manajemen Agroindustri 6 (3): 145-151. 2017. ISSN 2252-7877 (Print), ISSN 2549-3892 (Online). https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.industria.2017.006.03.5


By: Nurtjahja K1, Dharmaputra OS2, Rahayu WP3,4, Syarief R3

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University,
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sumatera Utara University,
3 SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor Indonesia
4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University,
5 SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University

The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of various water activities (aw) on fungal population in nutmeg kernels during storage. The seed nutmegs were obtained from ripe fruits one week after they fell on the ground in North Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The kernels (moisture content ± 10%) were stored 0, 15, and 30 days in various aw (0.75, 0.80, 0.83, 0.90, 0.97) using saturated salt solutions at 29 °C in sorption containers. Serial dilution method followed by a pour-plate method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18) was used to isolate and quantify the fungal population. Results revealed that kernels stored at aw = 0.75 was not significantly (p < 0.05) different from at aw = 0.80-0.83. Fungal population of kernels determined aw and significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by duration of storage. Range of aw 0.80-0.83 has a smaller total fungal population than aw ≥ 0.90. Thirteen different genera/species were isolated and identified including Aspergillus and Eurotium (6 species), Penicillium (3 species), Fusarium (2 species), 1 species each of Cladosporium or Syncephalastrum, and isolate A. The largest total fungal population (5.0×105 CFU g-1) was present at the beginning of storage (aw = 0.97) and it was dominated by Penicillium citrinum (2.6×105 CFU g-1) followed by Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.7×105 CFU g-1). After 30 days of storage (aw = 0.97) the population of P. citrinum was still dominant with a population of 2.4×104 CFU g-1. Eurotium chevalieri followed with a population of 1.2×104 CFU g-1.
Keywords: Fungal population; moisture content; nutmeg; water activity

Published at Agritech 37 (3): 288-294. 2017. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.10639. ISSN 0216-0455/2527-3825


By: Setyawardani T1, Rahayu WP2,3, Palupi NS2,3. and Sumarmono J1

1 Department of Animal Production, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto Indonesia
2 South East Asia Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Indonesia
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680 Indonesia

Probiotic is live non-pathogenic microorganisms that give beneficial effects on health when they are administered in adequate amounts. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolates (L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum) as well as cheese containing the probiotics on microflora profiles, morphological profile of ileum and caecum, and immunomodulator potency by measuring lymphocyte proliferation and IgA levels in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with the probiotics or cheese containing the probiotics for 10 days, infected with S. Typhimurium for 3 days, and continued to be fed with or without the probiotics or the cheese. A total of 6 treatments were applied, which were: (protyp-pro, pro-typ-std, che-typ-che, che-typ-std, pro-PBS-pro, and std-typ-std). The measured variables were the number of LAB and S. Typhimurium colonies, lymphocyte cells, and the level of SIgA. The results showed that the highest number of LAB in the ileum and caecum in probiotic fed rats (pro-typ-std followed by pro-typ-pro) as compared to the control, whereas number of S. Typhimurium was lower. The study showed that the treatment of probiotic isolate was able to improve the number of lymphocyte during the first 10 days, during the infection of S. Typhimurium and post infection stage. The treatment of probiotic isolate was able to improve SIgA at the time of S. Typhimurium intervention. In conclusion, mixed isolates of L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum and cheese containing the probiotics were able to show preventive and remedial functions during S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 infection, thus demonstrate the potential to be used as probiotic cultures.

Keywords: Goat milk, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, probiotic

Published at Int. Food Res. Journal 24(6): 2625-2631. 2017. ISSN 19854668/e:22317546


By: Nurtjahja K1, Dharmaputra OS2, Rahayu WP3,4, Syarief R3

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University,
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sumatera Utara University,
3 SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor Indonesia
4 Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University,
5 SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University

The aims of this work were to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on population, viability and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from nutmeg kernels. Thirteen strains of A. flavus were isolated and cultured in potato dextrose agar. Conidia were harvested, air-dried, and irradiated 0, 5, or 10 kGy with gamma rays using a Cobalt-60 source. Toxigenicity were determined using a coconut agar medium and thin layer chromatography. Genomes of strains were extracted from mycelia. Four sets of primers, regulatory (aflR) and structural genes (nor-1, ver-1, omt-1) were used to confirm the presence of the genes. Our results indicate that total fungal populations decreased significantly (P\ 0.05) with increasing irradiation dose. However, doses of 5 and 10 kGy were insufficient to completely eliminate the viability of some A. flavus strains. Irradiation did not change toxigenicity and triggered surviving toxigenic strains to produce aflatoxin B1.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus Toxigenic Non-toxigenic Gamma irradiation Aflatoxin B1

Published at Food Sci Biotechnol. 26 (6): 1755-1761. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0216-x


Nababan H1, Rahayu WP2,3,1, Waturangi DE4, Suratmono1, Puspitasari R1, Indrotristanto N1, Nikastri E5, Yuliangsih S5, Pusparini N5

1 Directorate of Food Safety Surveillance and Extension, National Agency for Drug and Food Control, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
3 Southeast Asia Food and Agricultural Science and Technology Center (SEAFAST Center), Bogor, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Biotechnology, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
5 Research Center of Drug and Food, National Agency for Drug and Food Control, Jakarta, Indonesia

Introduction: Ice can be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. This study aimed to identify critical points in iced beverage production and distribution lines to examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria in a beverage and its processing environment, as well as when water and ice used as main ingredients.
Methodology: The critical points were determined using the principles of Hazard Analytical Critical Control Point (HACCP) to analyze each processing and distribution step from the survey. Samples collected from the points of concern based on the critical points that were found were tested for pathogens by conventional method and molecular method using primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Escherichia coli was found in 6.34% of samples, and 0.7% of them were confirmed as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) by PCR. Vibrio cholerae was found in in 0.7% of water samples used to make iced beverages and in ice production, as well as in 2.12% of distribution and production tools. Salmonella Typhimurium was found in 1.4% of water samples used to make ice and ice products. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 2.02% of the surfaces of ice distribution and production tools and in 5.05% of production and distribution workers’ hands. S. aureus counts ranged from 2.4×102 – 3.5×102 colonies/100 cm² surface area and 1.9×10¹ – 3.7×102 colonies/workers’ hands. Conclusion: Control on many critical points in iced beverage processing and distribution is required so that the beverages are safe for consumption.

Keywords: critical points; iced beverages; pathogenic bacteria.

Published at Journal Infect Dev. Ctries. 2017; 11(6):493-500. doi:10.3855/jidc.8934


By: On SLW1) and Rahayu WP 2)
1) Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, PO Box 85084, Lincoln, New Zealand
2) Department of Food Science and Technology and SEAFAST Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor-Indonesia

Estimates for the burden (number of cases) and cost of diarrheal foodborne illness (FBI) per year in Indonesia were calculated. Distinct data sources and models (derived from the World Health Organization, and Indonesian sources) were used to cross-validate results from each analysis. For all cases, estimates of the burdens and costs of the foodborne illnesses were broadly of the same magnitude. Total annual estimates of diarrheal FBI cases in Indonesia ranged from 10,189,312 to 22,476,423, with costs estimated as $4,763,051,067–16,752,046,500 USD. Estimates concur with similar studies in other countries that indicate the huge burden and cost of foodborne illness worldwide, emphasising the need for appropriate countermeasures to reduce this burden.
Keywords: foodborne illness, foodborne pathogens, cost estimates, burden of disease estimates, Indonesia

Published at Asia-Pacific Journal of Food Safety and Security, 3(1), 3-16. 2017

{Abstract} PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM CARA PRODUKSI MAKANAN ENTERAL YANG BAIK (CPMEB) DAN APLIKASINYA DI RUMAH SAKIT (Development of Good Manufacturing Practices System for Enteral Foods and Its Application at Hospital)

By: Amiroh1, Rahayu WP2, Dewanti-Hariyadi R2

1Program Studi Diploma 3 Gizi, Fakultas Kesehatan, Universitas MH Thamrin Jakarta
2Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Hospital formula enteral food is a special food targeted specifically for a group of people with health risk. Therefore its safety needs to be controlled more stringently for example through the application Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Presently, the guidelines for good processing practices for enteral food is not available yet. This research aims to develop a Good Enteral Food Manufacturing Practices (GEFM) consisting of a guideline as well as a systematic audit system that can be applied easily in the hospital. The system was developed based on the Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia Regulation Number:1096/MenKes/PER/VI/2011 on hygiene and sanitation for food service industries and other relevant references. Based on the literature review and trials, thirteen aspects were defined for the requirements; including four main aspects pertaining production room, production equipment, process control and workers’ hygiene. Other aspects include building and its facilities, sanitation facility, raw materials storage, monitoring, pest control, distribution, training, patient feeding, and documentation. An audit trial at a hospital Y suggested that its enteral food production unit was categorized as good; but needed improvement in several aspects such as: production equipment storage, hygiene and sanitation maintenance, food distribution and food handle training.

Keywords: Hospital enteral food, GEFMP guidelines, audit system

Published at Jurnal Mutu Pangan 3(1): 65-70, 2016. ISSN 2355-5017

{Abstract} KAJIAN PENERAPAN PERATURAN MENTERI PERTANIAN NOMOR 53 TAHUN 2012 UNTUK PENGENDALIAN AFLATOKSIN PADA PALA (Implementation of Minister Agriculture Regulation Number 53, 2012 to Control Aflatoxin in Nutmeg)

By: Citanirmala NMV1, Rahayu WP2,3, Dewanti-Hariyadi R2,3

1 Program Studi Magister Profesional Teknologi Pangan, Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor
2 Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor
3 Southeast Asia Food and Agricultural Science and Technology Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Nutmeg as Indonesia main exported commodity frequently contaminated by aflatoxin and often rejected by European Union. To improve safety of nutmeg, Ministry of Agricultural (MA) issued a regulation number 53 in 2012 regarding good practices on nutmeg. The objectives of this research were to (1) evaluate implementation of the MA regulation at nutmeg supply chain in Siau Barat District (2) identify critical points for mold growth and/or aflatoxin formation along the nutmeg supply chain. This research conducted through (1) surveys to 60 farmers, 10 middlemen, 2 exporters and 3 government officials as respondents; (2) identification of critical steps using HACCP decision trees. TheB evaluation of MA regulation showed that at farmer level was poor for postharvest handling (54.4%) caused by lack of facilities and infrastructure (57.2%), although for harvest was moderate (70.4%). At the middleman level, handling practices at postharvest was moderate (62.5%), although not supported with facilities and infrastructure (36.7%). Handling practices at exporter level was generally good, however supervision at government official level was poor (56.3%). Critical control points determined at farmer level were harvesting and drying, at middlemen level were receiving, drying and storage, while at exporter level were receiving and shipment.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Minister of Agricultural Regulation No. 53 year 2012, nutmeg, Siau Barat district,
supply chain

Published at Jurnal Mutu Pangan 3(1): 58-64, 2016. ISSN 2355-5017

{Abstract} IMPLEMENTASI STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL PADA OPERASI PENGISIAN PRODUK PANGAN BUBUK (Implementation of Statistical Process Control in Filling Operation of Powdered Food Product)

By: Rahayu WP12, Nugroho G1, Situmorang AF1

1Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor
2 South East Asian Food and Agricultural Sciences and technology (SEAFAST) Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Weight variability at filling operation of a food manufacturing company is a significant quality problem. Weight variability causes consumers get varied amount of products in each package. This research aims to implement statistical process control to reduce weight variability. Three sources of variability were analyzed: gage method, operator performance, and packaging weight. Analysis toward gage method using gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) analysis shows that gage method in sachet and box contributes to 3.55 and 1.30% variance of end product respectively. Analysis toward operator performance using weight adjustment analysis shows under adjustment (operator missed knob adjustment while average weight is out of control) is a significant variability source. Analysis toward packaging weight using consistency analysis in X ̅-R chart shows supplier B has out of control weight consistency. Tightening of product weight monitoring by operator with 15 minutes interval shows reduction in standard deviation from 0.0407 to 0.0298 and changes average product weight from 2.028 to 2.001 g, closer to target weight 2.000 g. Feasibility study for the solution is conducted by mapping operator’s activity in Gantt chart and shows that solution to tighten product weight monitoring by operator feasible.

Keywords: Variability, statistical process control, pengisian, gage R&R, control chart

Published at Jurnal Mutu Pangan. 3(1): 18-27, 2016. ISSN 2355-5017

{Abstract} SISTEM EVALUASI CARA PERGUDANGAN DAN DISTRIBUSI YANG BAIK UNTUK MENJAMIN MUTU DAN KEAMANAN SUSU BUBUK (Evaluation System on Good Warehouse and Distribution Practices to Ensure Milk Powder Quality and Safety)

By: I P G Arya Dharmawan1, Harsi D Kusumaningrum2,3, Rahayu WP2,3

1 Program Studi Magister Profesional Teknologi Pangan, Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor
2 Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor
3 South East Asian Food and Agricultural Sciences and technology (SEAFAST) Center,
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Good practices in food chain are very important to ensure product quality and safety. Good practices start from raw material usage, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, retailing, until product consumption by consumers. Milk powder is a high value commodity but it is a high risk product. Good warehousing and distribution system must be in place to ensure product quality and safety. Quality and food safety system evaluation model consists of 4 steps: plan, do, check, and action. A model on quantitative evaluation system for good warehouse practice (GWP) and good distribution practice (GDP) consist of five points (internal, external area, transportation, quality management, and inventory management). These five points were detailed to 30 sub points. Criteria and requirements have been
included for each sub point, and defined by 5 scales (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). Furthermore, the evaluation system has been implemented at 3 distributors (A, B, and C) in 30 cities. The result showed that distributors A, B and C complied to the criteria with the score of 77.32+4.05%, 84.17+5.80%, and 73.30+6.64%, respectively. The distributors were categorized as very good (13.30%), good (60.0%) and fair (13.30%).

Keywords: Good distribution practices, good warehouse practices, product quality, product safety

Published at Jurnal Mutu Pangan 3(1): 1-9, 2016. ISSN 2355-5017