{Abstract} KAJIAN STANDAR CEMARAN MIKROBA DALAM PANGAN DI INDONESIA (Review on Food Microbiological Standard in Indonesia)

By: Martoyo PY1)2),  Dewanti- Hariyadi R1) Rahayu WP1). 1) Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, 2) Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan

Microbiological standard for processed food in Indonesia is regulated by the Head of NADFC in Decree No. POM. HK. 2009 pertaining Microbial and Chemical Contamination Limit in Food and by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of food commodities. In the implementation, there were several obstacles and some criteria could not be met because they were too stringent or the testing methods were not available. The purpose of this study was to compare the fulfillment of microbiological standards of Indonesia and some other countries in the world against the rules of Codex microbiology criteria, to review microbiological criteria of priority foods and to provide recommendations for their microbiological criteria. The study was conducted by comparing and analyzing the microbiological criteria from Indonesia and 10 other countries, namely Australia and New Zealand, Europe, Philippines, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Singapore and South Africa and recommendation by Codex Principles for The Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997). As the case studies, several foods were selected based on several obstacles occurred and their criteria and studied as above. The results showed that Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Canada and the Philippines comply with the Codex Principles, while Indonesia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and South Africa do not comply. The study also showed that Indonesia’s standard for bottled/packaged drinking water, instant coffee and canned food need revision. For the purpose of verification of the production process and lot acceptance, it is recommended to set one maximum limit of TPC for bottled/packaged drinking water. Determination of microbiological criteria in instant coffee is irrelevant, except for the OTA. Requirements for canned food should be done with a fulfillment for adequate heat treatment and incubation test to anticipate microbial spoilage.

Keywords: Codex, Microbiological Criteria, Standard

Dimuat di Jurnal Standardisasi 16 (2): 113-124. tahun 2014

{Abstract} PENGEMBANGAN STRATEGI KEAMANAN PRODUK PERIKANAN UNTUK EKSPOR KE AMERIKA SERIKAT (Food Safety Strategy Development of Fishery Products Export to the United States)

By:  Rahmawaty L1)2),  Rahayu WP1) D. Kusumannggrum1). 1) Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB 2) PT. Narrada Sigma Indonesia

Nowadays productivity and export of Indonesian fish product increase and Indonesia became number one producer of tuna product in the world. The biggest challenge for Indonesian fishery products in the era of free trade is food safety. This study aims to analyze the case of rejection of Indonesian fishery products by the U.S. and design a recommendation on food safety strategy development of fishery products export to United State. The result of data collection indicate that Indonesian products rejection by FDA in 2010-2012 has fluctuated and dominated by fishery products, with the main cause of rejection are filthy and Salmonella. The case study conducted at tuna processing company which has been HACCP certified by Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries to strengthen the data. Case study indicate a failure in the application of HACCP system because of in harmony standard, regulation and audit system Indonesia to FDA. Based on gap analysis standard and regulation of Indonesia to FDA, recommendation are proposed on food strategy related to standardization, accreditation, infrastructure and international cooperation.
Keywords: fishery product safety, HACCP, policy strategy, standardization, accreditation.

Dimuat di Jurnal Standardisasi 16 (2): 95-102. tahun 2014

{Abstract} BIOCONTROLOF TOXIGENIC MOLDS by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9376

By Rahayu WP1),2)*, Herawati D1),2),  Broto W3),  Ambarwati S4),Lioe HN1), Simatupang S5),  Pratiwi C5),  Rahayu D5).                                                                        1)2) Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University/IPB, 2)SEAFAST Center-IPB, 3)Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Ministry of Agriculture,4)SEAMEO BIOTROP, 5)Study Program of Food Science-IPB

Toxigenic molds (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Fusarium verticillioides) are able to produce mycotoxin and contaminate crops (i.e. maize and soybean), which in the next may have serious impact to health risk. This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of antagonist yeast, S. cerevisiae, as a biological competitor for the growth of toxigenic molds. The biocontrol of toxigenic molds on Potatoes Dextrose Agar (PDA), soybean and maize was conducted by growing toxigenic molds together with S. cerevisiae ATCC 9376 for 10 (A. flavus BIO 2237), 15 (A. ochraceus BIO 220), and 8 (F. verticillioides BIO 957) days. This research showed that S. cerevisiae ATCC 9376 could inhibit A. flavus BIO 2237, A. ochraceus BIO 220, and F. verticillioides BIO 957with the inhibition percentage: 46, 43, and 44 % on PDA medium; 47, 59, and 45 % on maize medium; and 44, 49, and 39 % on soybean medium respectively. The result showed that A. ochraceus BIO 220 become the most inhibit toxigenic molds among others and maize was the most effective media of inhibition. Furthermore, this preliminary information could be used for biological control of toxigenic molds growth and mycotoxin control in foods.

Keywords: maize, S. cerevisiae, soybean, toxigenic molds

The paper has been presented in International Conference on Food for A Quality Life. Jakarta, 15 – 16 October 2014


By: 1Setyawardani, T., 2*Rahayu, W. P., 3Maheswari, R. R., and 2Palupi, N. S.
1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Jenderal Soedirman University, Indonesia, 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Campus IPB Darmaga, PO Box 220, Bogor 16002, Indonesia. 3Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

To be categorized as probiotic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) must have at least antimicrobial activity and adhesion ability on intestinal mucosal surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and adhesion ability of eight LAB strains isolated from goat milk. The isolates passed initial selection on low pH (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0) and bile salt tolerance (0.3% Oxgall). Three strains of L. rhamnosus (TW2, TW3, TW32); five strains of L. plantarum (TW4, TW10, TW14, TW26, and TW28) were examined for their antimicrobial activity against both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, E. coli ATCC 8739, B. cereus ATCC 13061, S. aureus ATCC 25923 and     P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027). Five isolates (TW2, TW4, TW14, TW28, and TW32) were evaluated for their ability to adhere to intestinal mucosal surfaces. A modified well diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity. A modification of an animal model was also used to analyze the LAB adhesion ability. The adhesion of the bacteria on jejunum and ileum was examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The result showed that the isolates had diameters of inhibition ranging from 12.6 to 19.9 mm for      S. Typhimurium, 11.3 to 21.4 mm for E. coli, 7.5 to 19.9 mm for B. cereus, and                9.9 to 24.7 mm for P. aeruginosa. L. plantarum TW10 and TW26 had no inhibition activity for S. aureus. The adhesion ability of the bacteria was 0.54-2.19 log CFU/cm2 on the intestinal mucosal surfaces. The highest adhesive level in jejunum and ileum was showed by L. rhamnosus TW2.

Keywords: adhesion ability, antimicrobial, lactic acid bacteria, goat milk

Published at Int. Food Res. Journal 1(3): 959-964. 2014. ISSN 19854668/e:22317546

{Abstract} PEMENUHAN REGULASI PELABELAN PRODUK INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA PANGAN (IRTP) DI BOGOR (Fulfillment of Food Labeling Regulations for Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Products in Bogor)

By: Wijaya, WA and Rahayu WP

Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University

A food label is an important tools for food trade activities, thus it required to be regulated and controlled so the information about the food that delivered to the public was true and not mislead. This research was a descriptive research with aimed to evaluate the degree of fulfillment of food product labels of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bogor compared with existing regulations (Indonesian Act Number 18 of 2012). Samples were chose from three majority of SMEs products in Bogor, there were flour products and its processing; products from the process of grains and tubers; and softdrink and powdered beverages products. Four group of element were tested: 1) technical labeling, 2) format content, 3) minimum information, and 4) prohibited information. The results showed the level of fulfillment for those three types of products were: 1) technical labeling: 44, 45, and 73%, 2) format content: 75, 80, and 60%, 3) minimum information: 69, 64, and 66%; and 4) prohibited information: 99, 100, 96%, respectively. The average level of fulfillment for those three types of products were 72, 72, and 74%, respectively. This low result of level of fulfillment showed that it still need further development of SMEs, especially about food labelling criteria according to the existing regulations.

Keywords: Label, level of fulfillment, regulations, SMEs

Dimuat di Jurnal MUTU PANGAN 1(1): 67-73. ISSN 2355-5017. 2014.

{abstract} DAMPAK KONDISI EKSTRIM SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Aspergillus flavus DAN PEMBENTUKAN AFLATOKSIN PADA KEDELAI (Impact of Extreme Condition (Temperature and Relative Humidity)for Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Production on Soybean)

By: Rahayu WP1),2), Broto W3), Ambarwati S4), Dian Herawati1),2), Lioe HN1), Pratiwi C5). 1)Department of Food Science and Technology-IPB, 2)SEAFAST Center-IPB, 3)Agency for Research and Development of Agricultural Postharvest, Ministry of Agriculture. 4)SEAMEO BIOTROP, 5) Food Science Post Graduate Student.

 http://www.clt.astate.edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

http://www.clt.astate.edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

Aspergillus flavus producing aflatoxin is found contaminating crops such as soybean. The growth of this mold on soybean and other food is affected by temperature and relative humidity (RH). The aim of this study was to measure the growth and aflatoxin production of A.flavus at different temperature and relative humidity. A. flavus Bio 2237 was inoculated on  medium namely Czapek Dox Agar (CDA), and soybean,  and incubated for 10 days at 20, 30, 40oC and RH 70, 80, 90%, respectively. Aflatoxin analysis was conducted using RP-HPLC equipped by fluorescent detector and post column photochemical reactor. These instruments had LoD 0.45, 0.26, 0.05, and 0.13 ppb, while the LoQ were 1.50, 0.88, 0.18, and 0.43 ppb,  for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 respectively. Optimum growth for  A. flavus Bio 2237 on CDA medium and soybean were reached at 30oC with RH 90%. Maximum aflatoxin (999 ppb) production on soybean was reached at those conditions as well. A. flavus could not grow as well as produce aflatoxin at extreme condition (40ºC and RH70%) on soybean.


Keywords: aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, extreme condition, soybean.

 Dipresentasikan pada Seminar Hasil Hasil Penelitian IPB, 23-24 Desember 2013.


{abstract} MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea L) DENGAN PERLAKUAN HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN-PENDINGINAN UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE 3 (Modification of Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea L.) Starch Through Acid Hydrolysis and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type 3)

patiBy: Faridah DN, Rahayu WP, Apriyadi MS (Department of Food Science and Technology. Bogor Agricultural University).

Arrowroot starch can be modified to produce resistant starch (RS), which have been observed to show physiological functions similar to dietary fiber. Acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling cycling treatments can increase RS content. Arrowroot starch modification hydrolyzed by 1.1 and 2.2 N HCl for 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours, then continued with3 cycles of autoclaving-cooling treatment. Based on the starch digestibility, the acid hydrolyzed starch by 2.2 N HCl for 2 hours and 3 cycles of autoclaving-cooling cycling treatment had the lowest digestibility (22.04%). This treatment also increased amylose, dietary fibre, and RS contents. The increase of the amylose contents contributed to increase the total dietary fibre and RS contents up to 4.1 and 4.4 times, respectively, than native starch.

Key words: acid hydrolisis, arrowroot, autoclaving-cooling, resistant starch.

Dimuat di:   J. Tek. Ind. Pertanian 23(1): 61-69. 2013


 http://www.clt.astate.edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

edu/mhuss/Aspergillus flavus pict.jpg

By: Winiati P. Rahayu (Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University).

Mycotoxin is widely known as one cause of the foodborne disease, produced by toxigenic fungi. Its prevalence becomes higher with the availability of supporting conditions such as proper climatic changes, plentiful substrates, and minimum controls. Any country should be aware about this high risk potency in order to maintain food safety and food security by knowing the mycotoxin, the affected commodities, the fungal sources, and  the toxicity effect to human or animal. Indonesia has made some regulations regarding the contamination of mycotoxin to food or feedstuff, including Aflatoxin, Fumonisin, Deoxynivalenol (DON), Ochratoxin, and Patulin (PAT). Besides controlling through regulations, many studies  controlling mycotoxin have also been done throughout the world.   The using of microorganism or metabolite compounds produced by microorganism as biological agent has many advantages such as mild reaction conditions, target specificity, efficiency and environmental friendly. Some microbial strains has been developed as commercial biological agent product including Aspergillus flavus AF36, A. flavus strain NRRL21882, etc. The microbial characteristic used for biological agent should be evaluated including the inability to produce toxic substance, the tendency to multiply, colonize, survive, the safety, and applicability to the environment. Studies related to mycotoxin biocontrol by using microorganism can be focused on (1) the effect to the mycotoxin, (2) the growth of microorganism, or (3) the application to food both raw material and processed products. Consideration to combine more than one species of microorganism instead of a single species also has been taken to gather the possibility of achieving more effective.  For example, Yeast (S. cerevisiae) has been used together with bacteria (LAB) to take control on mycotoxin produced by some fungi. Further studies are still needed to develop the possibility of other biological control agents and the effect of their application, which in the next have the potency to be developed as manufacturing products.

Keywords: alternatives, advantages, biological agents, mycotoxin biocontrol

Presented at International Conference on Mycological Aspects of Food and Feed Safety, Yogyakarta, 27-28 June 2013


[abstract] EFFECT of KEBAR GRASS (Biophytum petersianum) LEAF EXTRACT on THE GROWTH AND STRUCTURE of AFLATOXIGENIC Aspergillus flavus


Source: Private collection

By: Meike M Lisangan1,2, Rizal Syarief1, Winiati P Rahayu1, Okky S Dharmaputra3,4(1 Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, 2  Faculty of Agricultural and Agricultural Technology, The State University of Papua, 3  Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University4Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Tropical Biology (SEAMEO BIOTROP)- Indonesia)

The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of kebar grass polar extract and its effect on the mycelial growth, conidiation and  morphological structure of two isolates of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, i.e. isolates BCCF0219 and AF1. A total of 64 components were identified using pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS), consisting of a class of carboxylic acids (7.81%), amina (1.56%), phenolics (26.56%), terpenes (15.60%), alcohols (10.94%), hydrocarbons compounds (20.3 %), benzene derivatives (6.25%), carbohydrate derivatives (4.69%), steroidal saponin (1.56%),  haloalkane (1.56%), and sterols (3.13%).In the bioassay, the two isolates of A. flavus were cultured on three  types of model media, i.e. fat-enriched medium, protein-enriched medium and carbohydrate-enriched medium containing five concentrations (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 mg/mL) of kebar grass polar extract.  The changes of hyphae structure and conidiation were observed usingScanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the percentage of growth inhibition of A. flavus isolate BCCF0219 caused by kebar grass polar extracts at a concentration of 14 mg/mL was 95.5% (in fat-enriched medium), whereas at a concentration of 12 mg / mL was 95.7% (in carbohydrate-enriched medium) and a concentration of 14 mg/mL was 91.0% (in protein-enriched medium).  The percentage of growth inhibition of A. flavusisolate AF1 caused by the extract at  a concentration of 16 mg/mL was 100% (in fat-enriched medium),while at a concentration of 12 mg / mL was 91.4% (in carbohydrate-enriched medium) and at a concentration of 16 mg/mL was 94.3% (in protein-enriched medium). A marked retardation in conidial production of the fungus was noticed in relation to the inhibition of mycelial growth. Under scanning electron microscopy, deformation of hyphae tips, formation of short branches, thinner hyphae, folded hyphae and collapse of entire hyphae were the major changes observed.  Morphological alterations might be due to the effect on cell permeability through the direct interaction between kebar grass extract and the fungal plasma membrane. These findings indicate the potential of  kebar grass leaf extract in preventing aflatoxigenic A. flavus infection  and minimize aflatoxin contaminationin stored food and feedstuff.


Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, Biophytum petersianum, growth inhibitor, morphological structure, Scanning Electron Microscopy

Presented at International Symposium on Tropical Fungi, Mikoina. Bogor 10-11 September 2013





Source: private collection

By:  Nurheni Sri Palupi 1),  Triana Setyawardani 2) and Winiati P Rahayu 1)

1)Department of Food Science and Technology  and SEAFAST Center- Bogor Agricultural University, 2)Faculty of Animal Science, Jenderal Soedirman University

Probiotic is live non-pathogenic microorganisms that give beneficial effects on health when they are administered in adequate amounts.  The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14 as well as cheese containing the probiotics on the profiles of microflora, morphological profile of ileum and caecum, lymphocyte proliferation and IgA levels in mice. Male SD rats was fed with the probiotics or cheese containing the probiotics for 10 days, infected with S. Typhimurium for 3 days, and continued to be fed with or without the probiotics or the cheese. Additionally a group of mice with standard feeding was used as control group. The results showed that the number of total lactic acid bacteria in the ileum and caecum in probiotic fed mice was higher than control, whereas the number of S. Typhimurium was lower. The growth of S. Typhimurium was completely inhibited when the mice were continuously given probiotics post-infection. Treatment of probiotic isolate was able to improve the number of lymphosite cellsduring the first 10 days, during infection with S. Typhimurium, and postinfection. Treatment of probiotic isolate was able to improve sIgA at the time of S. Typhimurium intervention. In conclusion, mixed isolates of L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14 and cheese containg the probiotics were able to show preventive and remedial functions during S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 infection, thus demonstrate the potential immunomodulatory.

Key words: Immunomodulatory, IgA, L. rhamnosus TW2, L. plantarum TW14, probiotic

Presented at 13th Asean Food Conference, SIFST (Singapore Institute of Food Science & Technology), Singapore 9-11 September 2013